Emeritus Distinguished Professor, Department of Defense Analysis
Naval Postgraduate School


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Graduate School Of Operational and Information Sciences (GSOIS)

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Publications and Citations on Google Scholar

Oral History Interview

Dr. Dorothy E. Denning National Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education at New Jersey City University

dedennin at nps dot edu



Denning, D. E., Information Warfare and Security, Addison-Wesley, December 1998.

Denning, D. E. and Denning, P. J. eds., Internet Besieged: Countering Cyberspace Scofflaws, ACM Press, Addison-Wesley, 1997.

Denning, D. E. and Lin, H., eds., Rights and Responsibilities of Participants in Networked Communities, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council, National Academy Press, 1994.

Denning, D. E., Cryptography and Data Security, Addison‑Wesley, May 1982. (out of print, but ACM has made available as a 19 MB .pdf)

TEDx Talk

Denning, D. E., "Open Doors and Back Doors: Why Cyber Crime is a Growing Threat," TEDxSantaCatalinaSchool, November 9, 2015, YouTube.

Selected Articles, Book Chapters, Essays, etc.

Denning, D., “VPNs are Powerful but Risky,” The Globe Post, December 4, 2018.

Denning, D., “North Korea's Growing Criminal Cyberthreat,” The Conversation, February 20, 2018.

Denning, D. E., Forward to R. A. Grimes, A Data-Driven Computer Security Defense, 2017.

Denning, D., "Following the Developing Iranian Cyberthreat," The Conversation, December 11, 2017.

Denning, D., "How the Chinese Cyberthreat Has Evolved," The Conversation, October 4, 2017. Also posted on Newsweek.

Denning, D., "Tracing the Sources of Today's Russian Cyberthreat," The Conversation, August 15, 2017.

Denning, D., "Cybersecurity's Next Phase: Cyber-Deterrence," The Conversation, December 13, 2016.

Denning, P. J. and Denning, D. E.,“Cybersecurity Is Harder Than Building Bridges,”American Scientist, May-June 2016, 154-157. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “The Rise of Hacktivism,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, September 8, 2015.

Denning, D. E., “Assessing Cyber War,” in Assessing War (L. J. Blanken, H. Rothstein, and J. J. Lepore eds.), Georgetown University Press, 2015, pp. 266-284. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Rethinking the Cyber Domain and Deterrence,” Joint Forces Quarterly 77, 2nd Quarter, April 2015, 8-15. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., "Towards More Secure Software," Comm. of the ACM, 58(4), April 2015, 24-26. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Cybersecurity Is Not Censorship,” in Internet Censorship, Bernadette H. Schell ed., (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO), 2014, pp. 144-147. (prepublication .pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Tags, Tweets, and Tethers,” Combating Terrorism Exchange (CTX), Vol. 4, No. 1, Feb. 2014, pp. 27-36. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Framework and Principles for Active Cyber Defense,” Computers & Security 40, February 2014, 108-113. DOI: 10.1016/j.cose.2013.11.004. (prepublication .pdf)

Denning, D. E. and Strawser, B. J., “Active Cyber Defense: Applying Air Defense to the Cyber Domain,” in Cyber Analogies (E.O. Goldman and J. Arquilla, eds.), Technical Report NPS-DA-14-001, 2014. (.pdf) Revised version in Understanding Cyber Conflict: Fourteen Analogies (G. Perkovich and A.E. Levite, eds.), Georgetwon University Press, 2017, Chapter 12. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E. and Strawser, B. J., “Moral Cyber Weapons,”in The Ethics of Information Warfare (M. Taddeo and L. Floridi, eds.), Springer, 2014, 85-103. (prepublication .pdf)

Denning, D. E. Stuxnet: What Has Changed? Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 672-687. (.pdf)

Chen, H., Denning, D., Roberts, N., Larson, C., Yu, X., and Huang, C., “The Dark Web Forum Portal: From Multi-lingual to Video,” Proceedings of 2011 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI 2011). (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., "Whither Cyber Terror?" 10 Years After September 11, A Social Science Research Council Essay Forum, Sept. 2011, (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Power Over Information Flow,” The Global Flow of Information: Legal, Social and Cultural Perspectives (Ramesh Subramanian and Eddan Katz, eds.), New York University Press, 2011, pp. 217-231. (.pdf of pre-publication version)

Denning, D. E., "Take This Joke Seriously," The Mark, June 30, 2011, (pre-publication .pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Cyber Conflict as an Emergent Social Phenomenon,” Corporate Hacking and Technology-Driven Crime: Social Dynamics and Implications (T. Hold and B. Schell eds.), IGI Global, 2011. (.pdf)

Denning, P. J. and Denning, D. E., "Discussing Cyber Attack," Comm. of the ACM, Vol. 53, No. 9, Sept. 2010. (.pdf)

Zhang, D., Zeng, S., Huang, C-N, Fan, L., Yu, X., Dang, Y., Larson, C., Denning, D., Roberts, N., Chen, H., “Developing a Dark Web Collection and Infrastructure for Computational and Social Sciences,” Proc. of the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI 2010). (.pdf)

Massey, D. and Denning, D. E., “Securing the Domain Name System,” guest editors' introduction to special issue on DNS, IEEE Security & Privacy, Vol. 7, No. 5, September/October 2009, pp. 11-13. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Barriers to Entry: Are They Lower for Cyber Warfare?” IO Journal, April 2009. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Terror's Web: How the Internet is Transforming Terrorism,” in Handbook on Internet Crime (Y. Jewkes and M.  Yar, eds.), Willan Publishing, 2010. (.pdf of pre-publication version)

Denning, D. E., “The Web Ushers In New Weapons of War and Terrorism, Scientific American, August 18, 2008. (link)

Denning, D. E., “Assessing the CNO Threat of Foreign Countries,” in Information Strategy and Warfare (J. Arquilla and D. Borer eds.), Routledge, 2007. (.pdf of pre-publication version)

Denning, D. E., “The Ethics of Cyber Conflict,” in Information and Computer Ethics (K. E. Himma and H. T. Tavani eds.), Wiley, 2008. (.pdf)

Kinniburgh, J. and Denning, D. E., “Blogs and Military Information Strategy,” IO Sphere, Joint Information Operations Center, Summer 2006, pp. 5-13. (.pdf) Also issued as JSOU Report 06-05, Joint Special Operations University, June 2006. Also in Information Strategy and Warfare (J. Arquilla and D. Borer eds.), Routledge, 2007.

Yuill, J., Denning, D., and Feer, F., “Psychological Vulnerabilities to Deception for Use in Computer Security,” DoD Cyber Crime Conference 2007, St. Louis, MO, January 2007. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., Glick, B. J., Karpf, R. S., and Seiler, M. E., U.S. Patent No. 7,143,289, “System and method for delivering encrypted information in a communication network using location identity and key tables,” November 28, 2006B. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “A View of Cyberterrorism Five Years Later,”Readings in Internet Security: Hacking, Counterhacking, and Society (K. Himma ed.), Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, 2006. (.pdf of pre-publication version)

Yuill, J., Denning, D., and Feer, F., “Using Deception to Hide Things from Hackers,” Journal of Information Warfare, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2006, pp. 26-40. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Information Operations and Terrorism.”(.pdf of 2005 version)

Yuill, J., Freer, F., and Denning, D., “Designing Deception Operations for Computer Network Defense,” DoD Cybercrime Conference 2005, Palm Harbor, FL, January 2005. (.pdf)

Yuill, J., Zappe, M., Denning, D., and Freer, F., “Honeyfiles: Deceptive Files for Intrusion Detection,” Proc. IEEE Workshop on Information Assurance, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, NY, June 2004. (.pdf)

Denning, P.J. and Denning, D. E., “Artificial Stupidity,” Comm. ACM, Vol. 47, No. 5, May 2004, p. 112. (.pdf)

Scott, L. and Denning, D. E.,“Location Based Encryption and its Role in Digital Cinema Distribution,” ION GPS/GNSS 2003, September 9-12, Portland, OR. (.pdf)

Scott, L. and Denning, D. E.,“A Location Based Encryption Technique and Some of Its Applications,” Institute of Navigation National Technical Meeting 2003, January 22-24, 2003, Anaheim, CA, pp. 734-740. (.pdf)

Scott, L. and Denning, D. E.,“Geo-Encryption: Using GPS to Enhance Data Security,”GPS World, April 2003, pp. 40-49. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Cyber Security as an Emergent Infrastructure,”in Bombs and Bandwidth: The Emerging Relationship between IT and Security (Robert Latham ed.), The New Press, 2003. (.pdf of prepublication version)

Denning, D. E., “Information Technology and Security,” in Grave New World: Global Dangers in the 21st Century (Michael Brown ed.), Georgetown Press, 2003. (.pdf of prepublication version)

Denning, D. E., “Is Cyber Terror Next?” in Understanding September (Craig Calhoun, Paul Price, and Ashley Timmer eds.), The New Press, 2002; placed on SSRC website November 2001. (.html)

Denning, D. E., “Is Cyber Terrorism Coming?” The George C. Marshall Institute, May 2, 2002. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Key Concerns,” Information Security, Vol. 4, No. 11, November 2001, p. 120. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Cyberwarriors,” Harvard International Review, Summer 2001, pp. 70-75. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Obstacles and Options for Cyber Arms Control,” proceedings of Arms Control in Cyberspace, Heinrich Böll Foundation, Berlin, Germany, June 29-30, 2001. (.pdf of longer, pre-publication version)

Denning, D. E., “Why I Love Biometrics,” Information Security, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 2001, p. 96. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Activism, Hacktivism, and Cyberterrorism: The Internet as a Tool for Influencing Foreign Policy,” Nautilus Institute.  A revised version appeared in The Computer Security Journal, Vol. XVI, No. 3, Summer 2000, pp. 15-35.  A further revision appeared in Networks and Netwars : The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy, J. Arquilla and D. F. Ronfeldt (eds), 2001, pp. 239-288. (.pdf) There is also a "Postscript on China" written in 2006 for a Japanese publication. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., Disarming the Black Hats? When Does a Security Tool Become a Cyberweapon, Information Security Magazine, October 2000. (.html)

Denning, D. E., “Reflecting on Cyberweapons Controls,” Computer Security Journal, Vol. XVI, No. 4, Fall 2000, pp. 43-53. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “TriStrata Integrates PKI Authentication,” TriStrata, In., December 2000. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., "Hacktivism and Other Net Crimes," Interview, Ubiquity, August 2000. (link)

Denning, D. E., “TriStrata: Breakthrough in Enterprise Security,” TriStrata, Inc., January 1999. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E. and Baugh, W. E., Jr., “Hiding Crimes in Cyberspace,” Information, Communication and Society, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1999; also  in Cybercrime, Routledge, 2000. (.pdf of pre-publication version, no figures)

Denning, D. E., "The Limits of Formal Security Models," National Computer Systems Security Award Acceptance Speech, October 1999. (.html)

Denning, D. E. and Baugh, W. E. Jr., “Easy Guide to Encryption Export Controls,” September 1999. (.htm)

MacDoran, P. F., Mathews, M. B., Ziel, F. A., Gold, K. L., Anderson, S. M., Coffey, M. A., Denning, D. E., U.S. Patent No. 5,757,916, "Method and Apparatus for Authenticating the Location of Remote Users of Networked Computing Systems," May 26, 1998. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E. and Baugh, W. E. Jr., Encryption and Evolving Technologies: Tools of Organized Crime and Terrorism, US Working Group on Organized Crime, National Strategy Information Center, June 1997. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Export Controls, Encryption Software, and Speech,” presented at the RSA Data Security Conference, January 28, 1997. (.html)

Denning, D. E., "Declaration on Encryption Policy," June 6, 1997. (.htm)

Denning, D. E., “Encryption Policy and Market Trends,” in Internet Besieged, 1997.  Also presented at the International Cryptography Institute 1996, National Intellectual Property Law Institute, October 25-26, 1996. (.txt)

Denning, D. E. and Branstad, D. K., “A Taxonomy for Key Escrow Encryption,” Comm. ACM, Vol. 39, No. 3, March 1996, pp. 34-40. (.pdf, .html of May 1997 revision)

Denning, D. E., "Descriptions of Key Escrow Systems," Feb. 26, 1997. (.htm)

Denning, D. E., “Encrypting the Global Information Infrastructure,” Computer Fraud & Security, July 1996, pp. 8-16. (.txt)

Denning, D. E., “Protection and Defense of Intrusion,” National Security in the Information Age, Conference Report, James P. McCarthy (ed.), U.S. Air Force Academy, February 28-March 1, 1996, pp. 209-221. (.htm)

Denning, D. E. and MacDoran, P. F., “Location-Based Authentication: Grounding Cyberspace for Better Security,” Computer Fraud & Security, Feb. 1996, pp. 12-16. (.pdf)

Long, J. and Denning, D. E., “Ultra-Structure: A Design Theory for Complex Systems and Processes,'' Comm. ACM, Vol. 38, No. 1, Jan. 1995, pp. 103-120. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Key Escrow Encryption: The Third Paradigm,” Computer Security Journal, Vol. XI, No. 1, Computer Security Institute, Spring 1995, pp. 43-52. (.pdf).

Denning, D. E.,“Is Encryption Speech?  A Cryptographers Perspective,” Feb. 12, 1995. (.txt)

Denning, D. E. and Smid, M., “Key Escrowing Today,” IEEE Communications, Sept. 1994. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Crime and Crypto on the Information Superhighway,” J. Criminal Justice Education, Vol. 6, No. 2, Fall 1995, pp. 323-336. (.txt)

Denning, D. E., “To Tap or Not to Tap,” Comm. of the ACM, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp 24‑33, 42‑44, March 1993. (.pdf of opening statement; .pdf of final thoughts)

Delaney, D. P., Denning, D. E., Kay, J., and McDonald, A. R., “Wiretap Laws and Procedures,” Sept. 1993. (.txt)

Brickell, E. F., Denning, D. E., Kent, S. T., Maher, D. P., and Tuchman, W., “The SKIPJACK Review, Interim Report: The SKIPJACK Algorithm,” July 28, 1993. (.txt; appendix in .tex)

Denning, D. E., “A New Paradigm for Trusted Systems,” Proc. 15th National Computer Security Conf., Oct. 1992, and Proc. New Security Paradigms Workshop, 1992‑1993, pp 36‑41. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “The United States vs. Craig Neidorf: A Viewpoint on Electronic Publishing, Constitutional Rights, and Hacking,” Comm. of the ACM, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp 24‑32, 42‑43, March 1991. (.pdf of full debate)

Denning, D. E., “The Data Encryption Standard: Fifteen Years of Public Scrutiny,” Distinguished Lecture in Computer Security, Proc. Sixth Annual Computer Security Applications Conf., Tucson, Dec. 1990. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Concerning Hackers Who Break into Computer Systems,” Proc. 13th National Computer Security Conf., pp. 653‑664, Oct. 1990. (.txt; 1995 postscript .txt)

Lunt, T. F., Denning, D. E., Schell, R. R., Heckman, M., and Shockley, W.R., “The SeaView Security Model,” IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 593‑607, IEEE Computer Society, June 1990. (.pdf)

Akl, S. G. and Denning, D. E., “Checking Classification Constraints for Consistency and Completeness,” Proc. of the 1987 Symp. on Security and Privacy, IEEE Computer Society, April 1987. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., Neumann, P. G., and Parker, D. B., “Social Aspects of Computer Security,” Proc. 10th National Computer Security Conference, Sept. 1987. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Lessons Learned from Modeling a Secure Multilevel Relational Database System,” IFIP Working Group 11.3: Database Security, IFIP, 1987. (.pdf)

Schell, R. R. and Denning, D. E., “Integrity in Trusted Database Systems,” Proc. of the 9th National Computer Security Conf., Sept. 1986. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., Akl, S. G., Heckman, M., Lunt, T. F., Morgenstern, M., Neumann, P. G., and Schell, R. R., “Views for Multilevel Database Security,” IEEE Trans. on Software Eng., Vol. SE‑13, No. 2, Feb. 1987, pp 129‑140; also in Proc. of the 1986 Symp. on Security and Privacy, IEEE Computer Society, April 1986, pp 156‑172. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “An Intrusion‑Detection Model,” IEEE Trans. on Software Eng., Vol. SE‑13, No. 2, Feb. 1987, pp 222‑232; also in Proc. of the 1986 Symp. on Security and Privacy, IEEE Computer Society, April 1986, pp 118‑131. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E. and Neumann, P. G., "Requirements and Model for IDES - A Real-Time Intrusion-Detection Expert System," Final Report, SRI International, Aug. 1985. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Commutative Filters for Reducing Inference Threats in Multilevel Database Systems,” Proc. 1985 Symp. on Security and Privacy, April 1985, pp 52‑61. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Digital Signatures with RSA and Other Public‑Key Cryptosystems,” Comm. ACM 27, 4, April 1984, pp 388‑392. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Cryptographic Checksums for Multilevel Database Security,” Proc. 1984 Symp. on Security and Privacy, April 1984, pp 52‑61. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., Schlörer, J., and Wehrle, E., "Memoryless Inference Controls for Statistical Databases,”Rev. March 1984 (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Field Encryption and Authentication,” Advances in Cryptology: Proc. CRYPTO 83, Plenum Press, Aug. 1983. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E. and Schlörer, J., Inference Controls for Statistical Databases,” IEEE Computer 16, 7, July 1983, pp 69‑82. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “The Many‑Time Pad: Theme and Variations,” Proc. 1983 Symp. on Security and Privacy, April 1983. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Protecting Public Keys and Signature Keys,” IEEE Computer Vol. 16, No. 2, Feb. 1983, pp 27‑35. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E. and Sacco, G. M., “Timestamps in Key Distribution Protocols,” Comm. ACM, Vol. 24, No. 8, Aug. 1981, pp 533‑536. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., Meijer, H., and Schneider, F. B., “More on Master Keys for Group Sharing,” Information Processing Letters, Vol. 13, No. 3, Dec. 13 1981, pp 125‑126; Follow on to Denning, D. E. and Schneider, F. B., “Master Keys for Group Sharing,” Information Processing Letters, Vol. 12, No. 1, Feb. 1981, pp 23‑25. (.pdf of both papers)

Denning, D. E., “Secure Statistical Database with Random Sample Queries,” ACM Trans. on Database Sys., Vol. 5, No. 3, Sept. 1980, pp 291‑315. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E. and Schlörer, J., “A Fast Procedure for Finding a Tracker in a Statistical Database,” ACM Trans. on Database Sys., Vol. 5, No. 1, March 1980, 88‑102. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E. and Denning, P. J., “Data Security,” Computing Surveys, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sept. 1979, pp 227‑249. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “Secure Personal Computing in an Insecure Network,” Comm. ACM, Vol.  22, No. 8, Aug. 1979, pp 476‑482. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., Denning, P. J., and Schwartz, M. D., “The Tracker: A Threat to Statistical Database Security,” ACM Trans. on Database Sys., Vol. 4, No. 1, March 1979, pp 76‑96. (.pdf)

Schwartz, M. D., Denning, D. E., and Denning, P. J., “Linear Queries in Data Bases,” ACM Trans. on Database Sys., Vol. 4, No. 2, June 1979, pp 476‑482. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “A Method for Maintaining Routing Data in Automated Record Keeping Systems,' Proc. IEEE COMPSAC, 1978, pp 215‑219. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E. and Denning, P. J., “Certification of Programs for Secure Information Flow,” Comm. ACM, Vol. 20, No. 7, July 1977, pp 504‑513. (.pdf)

Denning, D. E., “A Lattice Model of Secure Information Flow,” Comm. ACM, Vol. 19, No. 5, May 1976, pp 236‑243 (presented at the Fifth Symp. on Operating Systems Principles, Austin, Nov. 1975.) (.pdf)

Ph.D. Thesis

Denning, D. E. R., “Secure Information Flow in Computer Systems," Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University, May 1975. (.pdf)

Congressional Testimony

Denning, D. E., “Cyberterrorism,” Testimony Before the Special Oversight Panel on Terrorism, Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives, Mary 23, 2000. (.htm)

Denning, D. E., Statement Before the Subcommittee on Courts and Intellectual Property Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. House of Representatives, March 4, 1999. (.txt)

Denning, D. E. and Baugh, W. E. Jr., Testimony Before the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism, and Government Information, September 3, 1997. (.txt)

Denning, D. E., Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Technology, Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives, November 26, 1996. (.txt)

Denning, D. E., Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Aviation of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, U.S. House of Representatives, June 8, 1995. (.txt)

Denning, D. E., Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Technology, Environment, and Aviation of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, May 3, 1994. (.txt)









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